Lancia Rallye 037 + Homologation Version

lancia

In early 1980, as soon as the Group B regulations were announced, FIAT immediately launched a new rally car project. Several options were considered such as building a special version of the successful FIAT 131 rally car which could now sport either a supercharged engine at the front paired with a rear ZF transaxle. The idea of replacing the four cylinder with a Ferrari V8 was also considered but then came a problem: the 131 was to be phased out of production, soon to be replaced by the Lancia Delta in FIAT’s lineup.

As such, the same setup was considered but in the Delta instead. In true Italian style, the ideas changed once more to building a mid-engine FIAT Ritmo with a 2 litre supercharged engine instead. By then, Audi had already rolled out their quattro prototype rally car and although four wheel drive now seemed to be essential it was thought that there was insufficient time to begin developing such a system. Thus is was decided that the only way to battle the Audi, but using only two wheel drive, would have to be based on the recently revised mid-engined Lancia Beta Montecarlo model, of which a silhouette racing version already existed for Group 5.

In March of 1980, Lancia officially started “Project SE037” as the genesis for the new rally car and gave Abarth the responsibility for its design and development, albeit the exterior design would be penned by Pininfarina. Exterior wise, the car featured front and rear clamshells to allow for wide and quick access to every mechanical component. The overall design was still reminiscent of the Beta Montecarlo but sported round projector headlamps for better illumination and ease of replacement instead of the normal units. “Bulges” were added to the roof line to allow more headroom for racing helmets in the cabin.

The Abarth engineers decided to retain only the center section of the original Montecarlo chassis in favor of a more advanced and easier to service front and rear (tubular) spaceframe design for the engine and suspension components.

The other main change came by positioning the engine in a longitudinal position as opposed to the transverse layout. The engine, as it was common practice to reuse a proven design, was directly evolved from the unit used in the previous Fiat 131 rally car. However, the revised engine would now sport a supercharging system, of which the engineers were adamant in using.

037-engine

Since all these new features required per the new Group B rules that a minimum of 200 homologation cars to be built, it was decided that to give the “037” moniker (form the project code) to the new car, and added the “Rallye” name since it was designed strictly to win rallies. As such, the Rallye 037 can be considered without much argument as the spiritual successor to the legendary purpose built Group 4 rally car: the Lancia Stratos. Officially homologated on April 1st 1982, the Rallye 037 is considered as the very first top class rally car built entirely to exploit the new Group B specifications.

The car entered WRC competition at the 1982 Tour de Corse where Markku Alèn finished 9th. For its debut year, it must be mentioned that Lancia was using a basic version of the Rallye 037 which was very similar to the Stradale homologation model but with an upgraded engine (approx 250 HP) and rally suspension as the only major differences. The year was run only as a partial program to get the car through its paces and iron out its many issues. The rest of the season was indeed unfortunately plagued with retirements (mostly due to engine failures). Alèn remembers the debut car as one of the worst rally cars he had ever driven.

1982 Lancia Rallye 037.jpg

The official battle would only be between Audi and Opel, leaving the Abarth engineers hard at work to make their car more competitive. Although Audi would win the championship that year, the four wheel drive quattro remained very clunky on tarmac, and very much under pressure from the rear wheel drive Opel Ascona B400 all season long.

In August 1982, Abarth performed a full evolution to the rally car by upgrading many engine components that included replacing the Weber carburetor injection with mechanical fuel injection and also boosted power by the use of a water injection system. A new venting system was implemented with a new larger R18 Volumex supercharger to help improve its reliability to which the released air was fed into a transmission cooler when the throttle was lifted.

Lancia Rallye 037 ERF (4).JPG

The aerodynamics were slightly improved. The normal Stradale tail lights were also replaced by simpler and easier to maintain multi-function round units. The evolution improvements boosted morale within the team with Alèn now considering the car as one of the best he’d ever driven. Besides the mitigated debut of the 037, Lancia was confident that their new car would be very competitive for the following year.

Lancia’s faith in their car’s design and improvements was rewarded when the cars, expertly driven by Walter Rörhl (signed away from Opel) and Markku Alèn, gave them the 1983 manufacturers championship amidst very heated battles against the four wheel drive Audis : the 037 was a much better performer in tarmac rallies and much nimbler overall which greatly made up for its lack of traction. However, the quattro A2, which was introduced mid-season, had much improved reliability, weight, power, and gave the 037 a much harder run for its money. As such, since the 037’s days were obviously numbered, Lancia would convince FIAT to approve a new four wheel drive rally car (project SE038), to which the 037 would serve as its original engine test bed.

037-mazinga
1983 “Mazinga” Twin-Charged Test Bed

For the 1984 season, hoping to remain competitive, Lancia once again upped the ante with a second evolution; it featured increased engine displacement (and with higher compression) to maximize the engine class (from 1995 to 2111 cc which resulted in 2955 cc with the x1.4 forced induction factor). The rear bumper cover was deleted to help decrease the accumulation of mud in dirt rallies and was replaced with large mudflaps.

lancia_037

With the new improvements (more power and less weight) the 037 E2 was able to perform very decently against the revised quattro, albeit it began to be outclassed by the very powerful Sport quattro. The arrival of the mid-engine four wheel drive Peugeot 205 T16 mid-season highly impacted the points battle as the Peugeot soon started winning every event. As such, Lancia couldn’t repeat their championship success, the title going back to Audi, although the car performed very well overall considering it was largely handicapped by its lesser power and traction potency.

Lancia Rallye 037 ERF (5).JPG

For the 1985 season, disaster struck at the Tour de Corse where Attilio Bettega violently crashed his 037 and died from the impact. Afterwards, the Rallye 037 steadily fell out of contention against the outrageously more powerful Audi S1 E2 and very nimble Peugeot 205 T16 E2. Albeit they could have, Lancia did not perform a third evolution for the 037 since the engineers were instead busy putting the final touches on Lancia’s own four wheel drive supercar: the infamous Delta S4. The latter was launched at the last rally of the season and sounded the end for the last of the successful rear wheel drive cars.

037 rear parking.jpg

For the 1986 season, albeit the Rallye 037 had been replaced, it was officially used one last time for the tough Safari event. However, the car still performed quite well in lesser national rally series in the hands of privateer teams until the very end of Group B. The Rallye 037 was by far the most successful rear wheel drive Group B car (and the last to record a WRC win in a non-endurance event), showing the prowess of the platform. If not for the four wheel drive benchmark, it is easy to argue that the 037 would have had a long and successful international rally career.

You can learn more about specific chassis numbers and their history by CLICKING HERE.

SPECIFICATIONS

Group/Class B/12 Homologation number: B-210 (click to see papers)
Years active
  • 1982
  • (E1) 1982~1983
  • (E2) 1984-1986
Homologation start:

  • April 4th 1982
  • (E1) August 1st 1983
  • (E2) January 1st 1984

Homologation end:

  • December 31st 1990
Engine
Type Fiat Twin Cam (Lambredi), I-4, DOHC 16v, gas located middle longitudinal with 17oright inclination
Displacement
  • (E1) 1995 cc
  • (E2) 2111 cc
  • (E1) WRC: x 1.4 = 2793 cc
  • (E2) WRC: x 1.4 = 2955 cc
Compression ratio
  • (E1) 7.5:1
  • (E2) 9.0:1
Output power – torque
  • 250~260 HP @ 7000 rpm
  • (E1) 290~315 HP @ 8000 rpm
  • (E2) 325~345 HP @ 8000 rpm
  • 181 lb-ft (245 Nm) @ 4000 rpm
  • (E1) 197 lb-ft (267 Nm) @ 6000 rpm
  • (E2) 236 lb-ft (320 Nm) @ 5500 rpm
Materials block: cast iron cylinder head: aluminium alloy
Aspiration
  • Abarth R10 Volumex Roots supercharger
  • (E1, E2) Abarth R18 Volumex Roots supercharger
  • 1 x Weber 40DCNVH or 15/250 double carburetor.
  • (E1, E2) Bosch Kugelfisher mechanical fuel injection with water injection
boost: 8~13 psi (0.6~0.9 bar)
Ignition
  • Magneti Marelli AEI 200 A electronic
  • Marelli SM 808 X ignition device
  • CHAMPION N84G spark plugs, 10o static timing
  • 25o centrifugal (mechanical) timing
  • firing order 1-3-4-2
  • 12V 48Ah battery
  • Marelli AA 125 14V 55 A alternator
  • 0.95KV starter motor
Cooling system water-cooled with front mounted radiator 9 lt
Lubrication system dry sump with oil cooler 9 lt
Transmission
Type rear wheel drive 5 speed ZF gearbox
Gearbox ratios
  • 1st: 2.416
  • 2nd: 1.611
  • 3rd: 1.136
  • 4th: 0.846
  • 5th: 0.704
  • R: 2.867
  • 1st: 2.308
  • 2nd: 1.611
  • 3rd: 1.300
  • 4th: 1.125
  • 5th: 1.000
    R: 2.867
  • 1st: 1.875
  • 2nd: 1.555
  • 3rd: 1.300
  • 4th: 1.125
  • 5th: 1.000
  • R: 2.867
Diffrential ratios
  • 4.875
  • 5.250
  • 5.625
  • ZF spiral bevel gears
  • 40% limited slip rear differential
Clutch dry / Valeo single ceramic disc
Chassis-body
Type Central steel frame with aluminum roll cage. Two tubular frames front and back. 2 door coupe polyester resin and glass bodyshell
Front suspension Double unequal wishbones (lower trapezoidal) with coil springs, Bilstein telescopic gas shock absorbers and anti-roll bar
Rear suspension Double unequal wishbones (lower trapezoidal) with coil springs and double Bilstein telescopic gas shock absorbers
Steering system rack and pinion 2.5 turns lock to lock (14.4:1)
Brakes
  • front ventilated disks 300mm diameter with 2/4 aluminium piston calipers
  • Rear ventilated disks 300mm diameter with 2 aluminium piston calipers
dual circuit with servo
Dimensions
length:

  • (1982 + E1) 3967 mm (156.2 in)
  • (E2) 3890 mm (153.1 in)
width: 1800 mm (70.9 in) height: 1245 mm (49.0 in)
wheelbase: 2440 mm (96.1 in) front track: 1508 mm (59.4 in) rear track: 1498 mm (59.0 in)
Rims – tires
  • Speedline light alloy
  • front: 8″ x 15 – 16″
  • rear: 9~10″ x 16″ or 18″
  • tarmac: Pirelli P7 corsa
  • Gravel: SG35
  • front: 205/50 VR15 or 205/55-16
  • back: 225/50-16 or 265/40 VR16 or VR18
Dry/Unladen Weight
  • (E1) 980 kg (2160 lb)
  • (E2) 960~970 kg (2115~2140 lb)
Weight/power
  • (E1) 3.2 kg/HP (7.0 lb/HP)
  • (E2) 3.0 kg/HP (6.6 kg/HP)
Fuel tank 30 + 70 lt

HOMOLOGATION MODEL

Lancia_Rally_037_Stradale.jpg
Lancia Rallye 037 Stradale

The Rallye 037 Stradale (meaning “Road Version” in Italian) was born from the collaboration between Pininfarina, Abarth, Dallara and the project manager, engineer Sergio Limone. Based on the design of the Lancia Beta Montercarlo, it was to be the rally successor to the Stratos, and was built specifically for Group B homologation. Only 220 units were built making it a very coveted and rare model.

SPECIFICATIONS

Class Sports Coupe
Production 1980~1982 (220) Assembly: Italy
Engine
Type
  • I-4
  • 2.0 L DOHC 16v
  • gas engine
  • mid engine
  • Longitudinal
Compression ratio N/A
Output power – torque 205 HP @ 7000 rpm 166 lb-ft (226 Nm) @ 5000 rpm
Aspiration Abarth R10 Volumex supercharger Boost: N/A
Ignition Electronic inductive discharge Marelli AEI 200 A firing order 1-3-4-2
Lubrication system Dry sump forced Capacity N/A
Cooling system water-cooled
Transmission
Type rear wheel drive 5 speed manual gearbox
Gearbox ratios N/A N/A
Differential ratios N/A Self-Locking
Clutch Single dry plate,  hydraulic assist
Chassis/Body
Type Kevlar reinforced with fiberglass
Front suspension Independent double wishbone, coil springs, gas shock absorbers and stabilizer bar
Rear suspension Identical to front but with dual shock absorbers and without sway bar
Steering system Rack and pinion with hydraulic power assistance N/A
Brakes N/A N/A
Dimensions
length 3915 mm (154.1 in) width 1850 mm (72.8 in) height 1245 mm (49.0 in)
wheelbase 2240 mm (88.2 in) front track: N/A rear track: N/A
Rims – tires Speedline 16″ alloy wheels Pirelli P7 205/55 VR 16 tires
Curb Weight 1170 kg (2,580 lb) Bias:N/A
Weight/power 5.7 kg/HP (12.6 lb/HP)
Fuel tank 70 liters
Drag coefficient N/A

VIDEOS


AVAILABLE LITERATURE

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 Lancia 037: The Development and Rally History of a World Champion

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